Instances of criminal behavior by military, civilian, and contract personnel of the U.S. Department of Defense has happened and has happened with regard to Geneva Category prisoners and detainees. , The psychologists relied heavily on experiments done by American psychologist Martin Seligman in the 1970s on learned helplessness.  Some of these techniques fall under the category known as "white torture".  Zelikow's memo warned that the interrogation techniques breached US law, and could lead to prosecutions for war crimes. Using the "Mr. Big" Technique to Elicit Confessions: Successful Innovation or Dangerous Development in the Canadian Legal System? ': Effects of Training on Judgments of Truth and Deception in the Interrogation room". ":111, It is unknown to what extent the agency's recommendations were used or for how long, but according to the same Senate report, the list drawn up by DIA included the use of "drugs such as sodium pentothal and demerol", humiliating treatment using female interrogators and sleep deprivation. These include: In December 2007, CIA director Michael Hayden stated that "of about 100 prisoners held to date in the CIA program, the enhanced techniques were used on about 30, and waterboarding used on just three."..  No murder charges have been brought for these or for acknowledged torture-related homicides at Abu Ghraib and at Bagram.  Air Force Reserve Colonel Steve Kleinman stated that the CIA "chose two clinical psychologists who had no intelligence background whatsoever, who had never conducted an interrogation... to do something that had never been proven in the real world. 3 years ago. Its Ombudsman Alicia Shepard's defense of the policy was that "calling waterboarding torture is tantamount to taking sides. It was abusive and uncalled for. Articles with dead external links from November 2014, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia. The techniques included forced nudity, painful stress positions, sleep deprivation, and until 2003, waterboarding, a form of simulated drowning. ", The use of torture as an investigative technique waned with the rise of Christianity since it was considered "antithetical to Christ's teachings," and in 866 Pope Nicholas I banned the practice. , It was not known publicly until 2008 that Yoo wrote another legal opinion, dated March 14, 2003, which he issued to the General Counsel of DOD, five days before the invasion of Iraq started.  The British government has determined the techniques would be classified as torture, and dismissed President Bush's claim to the contrary. The recommendation was overruled by General Bantz J. Craddock, commander of U.S. Southern Command, who referred the matter to the army's inspector general. The CIA's Detention and Interrogation Program damaged the United States' standing in the world, and resulted in other significant monetary and non-monetary costs. The steadfast, ongoing refusal of our leading media institutions to refer to what the Bush administration did as "torture" – even in the face of more than 100 detainee deaths; the use of that term by a leading Bush official to describe what was done at Guantanamo; and the fact that media outlets frequently use the word "torture" to describe exactly the same methods when used by other countries – reveals much about how the modern journalist thinks. Investigations into these techniques resulted in the publication of policy directives that prohibited the use of hooding, stress positions or wall-standing, noise, sleep deprivation and deprivation of food and drink. , A March 22, 2005, sworn statement by the former chief of the Interrogation Control Element at Guantánamo said instructors from SERE also taught their methods to interrogators of the prisoners in Cuba.. Alaska, Illinois, Maine, Minnesota, and Wisconsin are the only states to require taped interrogation.  Condoleezza Rice recalled "being told that U.S. military personnel were subjected in training to certain physical and psychological interrogation techniques..." During the discussions, John Ashcroft is reported to have said, "Why are we talking about this in the White House? The military continues to vigorously prosecute any such unlawful activity. It is commonly applied by the military or the CIA in order to squeeze out vital information from a suspected terrorist or criminal captured as prisoners of high value. April 16, 2009: President Obama announces his decision to release government memos from 2002-2005 on "harsh" interrogation techniques. Smith, S. M., Stinson, V., & Patry, M. W. (2009). *FM 2-22.3 (FM 34-52) Field Manual Headquarters No.  Former guards and inmates at Guantánamo have said that deaths which the US military called suicides at the time, were in fact homicides under torture. , In late 2001, the first detainees including men like Murat Kurnaz and Lakhdar Boumediene, later established to be innocent and arrested on flawed intelligence or sold to the CIA for bounties, were brought to hastily improvised CIA/military bases such as Kandahar, Afghanistan. The 'bad cop' takes a negative stance on the subject. In it he argued that it was unlikely that "any federal court would agree (that the approval of harsh interrogation techniques) ... was a reasonable interpretation of the Constitution." 's Torture Program Looked Like to the Tortured", "Psychologie, ,weiße Folter' und die Verantwortlichkeit von Wissenschaftlern", "Psychology, 'White Torture' and the Responsibility of Scientists", "CIA Torture Report: The Most Stunning Findings", "John Yoo: If the Torture Report Is True, CIA Officers Are at Legal Risk - The Atlantic", "Top takeaways from the CIA torture report - CNNPolitics.com", "Newly released CIA files expose grim details of agency interrogation program", "The suppressed fact: Deaths by U.S. torture - Salon.com", "Senate report: Interrogation methods 'far worse' than CIA acknowledged", "Senate Torture Report Faults CIA for Brutality and Deceit", "C.I.A. After the defeat of the Fascists in World War II the CIA became both student and teacher of torture, propagating torture techniques worldwide to support anti-Communist regimes during the Cold War.  The CIA adopted some Gestapo and KGB methods such as waterboarding, sleep deprivation, and the use of electric shock, and researched new ideas: so-called 'no-touch' torture involving sensory deprivation, self-inflicted pain, and psychological stress. British legislation that applies to interrogation activities include: All police officers are trained in interview techniques during basic training, further training in detailed interviewing or specialist interviewing is received in specialist or advanced courses, such as criminal investigation, fraud investigation or child protection. Tactical Questioning is the initial screening of detainees, Detailed Interviewing is the more advanced questioning of subjects.  But after the 13th Century many European states such as Germany, Italy, and Spain began to return to physical abuse for religious inquisition, and for secular investigations. Interrogation (also called questioning or interpellation) is interviewing as commonly employed by officers of the police, military, and Intelligence agencies with the goal of extracting a confession or incriminating statements. The judges also concluded that Binyam Mohamed had been subjected to "cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment by the United States authorities" and that British Intelligence knew that Mohamed was being tortured by the CIA.. However, Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International have accused officers of the British Intelligence and Security Services of being at least complicit in the extraction of information from subjects under torture by second parties. However, he takes care to not actually blame the suspect for the crime. " However, Berkeley Professor of Linguistics, Geoffrey Nunberg, pointed out that virtually all media around the world, other than what he called the "spineless U.S. media", call these techniques torture. But for political reasons those countries are not in a position to initiate a prosecution, nor to extradite US officials to face charges. According to a report published by The Atlantic, the jail was manned by DIA's DCHC staff, who were accused of beating and sexually humiliating high-value targets held at the site. U.S.Senate Armed Services Committee report. However, prosecutions in either the International Criminal Court, or in the courts of a particular nation invoking the doctrine of universal jurisdiction, are also regarded as unlikely. , Some more lurid revelations of DIA's alleged harsh interrogations came from FBI officers, who conducted their own screenings of detainees in Guantanamo along with other agencies. 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