speed drug wiki

Amphetamine, past and present–a pharmacological and clinical perspective. Amfetamine (in straattaal ook wel speed, pep, snelle of belly genoemd) is een synthetisch psychofarmacon en drug.De dextro-isomeer van amfetamine (dextro-amfetamine) wordt voorgeschreven als therapie voor ADHD en narcolepsie.Het racemaat van amfetamine kent momenteel geen medicinale toepassingen in Nederland en wordt slechts recreatief gebruikt. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy. (2008). Amphetamine may be habit-forming, and this medicine is a drug of abuse. It is purely a drug of abuse and has no medical function, unlike many others. Progress in Neurobiology, 75 6, 406-33. 29 (2): 21–4, 32. Springer, Boston, MA. Galli, A., Poulsen, N.W., Sulzer, D., & Sonders, M.S. p. 329. It is removed excreted by the kidneys and only a small amount by hepatic enzymes. Finding speed. It is worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a consistent or reliable manner, although higher doses are more likely to induce the full spectrum of effects. These include: 1. Amphetamine was first synthesized in 1887 by Lazar Edeleanu at the University of Berlin. Government of Vermont. Today, amphetamine is used clinically for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity. Ecstasy, also known as candy or MDMA. Benzedrine sulfate was introduced 3 years later and was used to treat a wide variety of medical conditions, including narcolepsy, obesity, low blood pressure, low libido, and chronic pain. It is usually taken orally, but can also be insufflated, injected, or administered rectally. "Historical overview of methamphetamine". PMID 21272013. Speed is amphetamine, a stimulating drug that triggers the brain’s reward system giving the user feelings of pleasure. Sci. (1978). Nausea 5. [1][2] The class of drugs containing amphetamine includes prescription drugs commonly used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). PMID 22849208. Het gebruik is geestelijk verslavend. Treatment for amphetamine psychosis. New York: Oxford University Press. Speed drug is an illicit substance that belongs to a group of stimulant drugs known as amphetamines. Prog. Strictly speaking, a black beauty was a tablet of Biphetamine, manufactured by Strasenburgh Labs, then Pennwalt Corporation, and finally Fisons Corporation, before finally being pulled from the market in 1998. "World Drug Report 2014" (PDF). Defalque RJ, Wright AJ (April 2011). A powerful stimulant that keeps people alert, usually sold as an off-white or pinkish powder – that sometimes look like small crystals How it looks, tastes and smells How do people take it? These drugs increase the level of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, which can create euphoria. |, Role of Melatonin in Reducing Amphetamine-Induced Degeneration in Substantia Nigra of Rats via Calpain and Calpastatin Interaction |, Neuroprotective effects of melatonin on amphetamine-induced dopaminergic fiber degeneration in the hippocampus of postnatal rats. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, (1), CD003026-CD003026. Speed’s effects cover more than just the intended, desirable high. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2011.10.007. To find speed , = where is the distance and is the time that has gone by.. Units of measurement for speed. It also decreases appetite and fatigue. In animal models that evaluate the neurotoxicity of AMPH and METH, it is quite clear that hyperthermia is one of the essential components necessary for the production of histological signs of dopamine terminal damage and neurodegeneration in cortex, striatum, thalamus and hippocampus." It was widely used to treat a wide range of ailments such as alcohol hangover, narcolepsy, depression, and weight reduction. Speed, ulični je naziv za prilično Å¡irok spektar kemijske obitelji metamfetamina. Methamphetamine has two isomers, "left-handed" and "right-handed". Allied Sci. Many side effects associated with the drug are adverse effects that negatively impact users. p. 3. Vermont Department of Health. "Chemical and Physical Properties". These drugs increase the level of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, which can create euphoria. The basic form is more readily absorbed in the intestine and less readily removed by the kidneys, potentially increasing its half life [25]. doi:10.1177/0269881113482532. ISBN 9783540686989. Amphetamine is a synthetic drug. Speed is a drug that targets your brain’s ‘reward system’ to produce a positive sensation that can become addictive. 61 (3): 288–323. J. Central nervous system stimulants: historical aspects and clinical effects. (2013). 22 (250): 205–218. In Sydor A, Brown RY. Many people use it illegally, but it is occasionally used legally by prescription to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or obesity as "Desoxyn". Some of the street names for amphetamine include meth, ice, crystal meth, and crank. [34][35][36], In rodents and primates, sufficiently high doses of amphetamine causes damage to dopamine neurons, characterized as reduced transporter and receptor function. "Making the first anti-depressant: amphetamine in American medicine, 1929–1950". 42 (2): 205–233. Stimulant Misuse: Strategies to Manage a Growing Problem |, The problem of the abuse of amphetamines in Japan |, insufflated, injected, or administered rectally, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2005.04.003, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22329564, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2526380/, https://doi.org/10.1002/cber.188702001142, https://doi.org/10.1016/s1522-8649(11)50016-2, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3005101/, http://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00182#targets, http://www.iuphar-db.org/DATABASE/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=364, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4992783/, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5594082/, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4843092/, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673607604644, http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/r?dbs+hsdb:@term+@rn+@rel+300-62-9, http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00204-012-0815-5, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18596830, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5008711/, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5562346/, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29149481, http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/a?dbs+hsdb:@term+@DOCNO+3287, http://web.archive.org/web/20070217053619/http://www.merck.com/mmhe/sec07/ch108/ch108g.html, http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2013/021303s026lbl.pdf, http://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=374§ionid=41266218&jumpsectionID=41268855, http://www.acha.org/prof_dev/ADHD_docs/ADHD_PDprogram_Article2.pdf, "CONVENTION ON PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES 1971", http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/C-38.8/page-24.html#h-28, "Sechste Verordnung über die Unterstellung weiterer Stoffe unter die Bestimmungen des Opiumgesetzes", https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/data-and-analysis/bulletin/bulletin_1957-01-01_3_page003.html, "Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien", http://narcotic.fda.moph.go.th/faq/upload/Thai%20Narcotic%20Act%202012.doc._37ef.pdf, http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1971/38/schedule/2, http://www.fda.gov/regulatoryinformation/legislation/ucm148726.htm, https://psychonautwiki.org/w/index.php?title=Amphetamine&oldid=144763, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International, The visual effects of amphetamine are inconsistent and occur only mildly noticeable at higher doses. Retrieved 18 August 2014. It is commonly snorted, inhaled as smoke, or dissolved and injected into a vein. Methamphetamine is classified as a Schedule II stimulant by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), which means it has a high potential for abuse and is available legally only by prescription. In Sydor A, Brown RY. The reinforcing and motivational effects of amphetamine are mostly due to enhanced dopaminergic activity in the mesolimbic pathway. This page was last changed on 19 April 2020, at 05:37. Chemically, it is similar to methamphetamine. What is speed? DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. Berlin; London: Springer. N. Y. Acad. Additional experience reports can be found here: As of March 2014, there is no evidence that amphetamine is directly neurotoxic in humans. Racemic amphetamine (dl-amphetamine) contains two optical isomers, or enantiomers: Adderall and many other formulations of mixed amphetamine salts contain the enantiomers in a 3:1 ratio of d to l. This is achieved by mixing one part racemic amphetamine and one part d-amphetamine. It is odorless and has a slightly bitter taste. Adult ADHD Medications and Their Cardiovascular Implications |, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Lisdexamfetamine Compared with d-Amphetamine in Healthy Subjects |, Stimulants for the Control of Hedonic Appetite |, Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of d rugs of potential misuse (ScienceDirect) |, Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). The pharmacology and clinical outcomes of amphetamines to treat ADHD: does composition matter? The chemical structure of amphetamine consists of phenethylamine, a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain, with an additional methyl substitution at Rα. It is a white, odorless, bitter-tasting powder that easily dissolves in water or alcohol. Rasmussen N (July 2006). The exact bioavailability of amphetamine is not known, but it is believed to be over 75% by mouth, and higher by injection or intranasal administration[24][25]. Amphetamine has a high abuse potential and can cause dependence with chronic use. Angrist, B., & Sudilovsky, A. He called the compound "phenylisopropylamine". Prijeđi na navigaciju Prijeđi na pretraživanje. Methamphetamine, when abused, is commonly r… When prescription amphetamines are taken orally and in low doses, drug abuse and addiction is not a serious risk. As its addictive properties became known, governments began to place strict controls on its sale. Cardiovascular system failures 3. The concentrations of the main neurotransmitters involved in reward circuitry and executive functioning, dopamine and norepinephrine, increase dramatically in a dose-dependent manner by amphetamine because of its effects on monoamine transporters. Methamphetamine (contracted from N-methylamphetamine) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity. Chemically, it is similar to methamphetamine. Tell your doctor if you have had problems with drug or alcohol abuse. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2005.04.003. The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction reports the typical retail price of amphetamine in Europe varied between €3 and €15 ($4 to $21.55 USD) a gram in half of the reporting countries. PMC 3666194 Freely accessible. Amphetamine, also known as amp, fet or speed. Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), a literature based on anecdotal reports and the personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. Addiction is a serious risk with heavy recreational amphetamine use, but is unlikely to arise from typical medical use.[44][45][46]. ISBN 9780071481274. Westfall DP, Westfall TC (2010). Kish, S. J. The list below includes some known dangerous combinations (although it cannot be guaranteed to include all of them). Amphetamine. "Amphetamine, past and present – a pharmacological and clinical perspective". doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05906.x. Berman, S. M., Kuczenski, R., McCracken, J. T., & London, E. D. (2009). [5][6] Additionally, it sees widespread illicit use as a performance enhancing agent and recreational substance. [47] A review on treatment for amphetamine abuse-induced psychosis states that about 5–15% of users fail to recover completely. In reality, "Jay" had in fact increased his speed, but at the cost o… Eiden LE, Weihe E (January 2011). Although many psychoactive substances are reasonably safe to use on their own, they can quickly become dangerous or even life-threatening when combined with other substances. Using speed can lead to health, social and financial problems. [38], Melatonin has been shown to prevent (if used 30min+ before dosing) and reverse amphetamine induced neurotoxicity of TH-pSer40 and calpastatin levels in the Substantia Nigra of rats.[39][40]. Google, DuckDuckGo) should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. [14] Outside Europe, the illicit market for amphetamine is much smaller than the market for methamphetamine and MDMA. 19 (23): 7044–7048. Učinci su, na srediÅ¡nji živčani sustav, jači nego kod amfetamina. Retrieved 13 October 2013. (June 2014). The amphetamine speed is actually a “slang” name for the entire class of drugs known as amphetamines. Efficacy of psychostimulant drugs for amphetamine abuse or dependence. Shoptaw, S. J., Kao, U., & Ling, W. (2009). There are many units of measurement for speed. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. It was one of a series of compounds related to the plant derivative Ephedrine, which had been purified two years previously by Nagayoshi Nagai. It is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance. Sometimes, the drug is used for fun or to boost performance. In Stimulants (pp. PMID 15955613. Heal DJ, Smith SL, Gosden J, Nutt DJ (June 2013). These drugs increase the level of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, which can create euphoria. Stolerman IP (2010). Chemically, it is the parent compound of the substituted amphetamines, a group which includes a diverse range of substances like bupropion, phenmetrazine, MDMA, and DOx. Bioorg. [42][43] [21] Consequently, dextroamphetamine produces greater CNS stimulation than levoamphetamine, roughly three to four times more, but levoamphetamine has slightly stronger cardiovascular and peripheral effects.[22][23]. Amphetamine exerts its behavioural effects by increasing the signaling activity of neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine in the reward and executive function pathways of the brain. A Handbook on Drug and Alcohol Abuse: The Biomedical Aspects (2nd ed.). [37] Animal models of neurotoxicity from high-dose amphetamine exposure indicate that the occurrence of hyperpyrexia (i.e., core body temperature ≥ 40 °C) is necessary for the development of amphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. Severe amphetamine overdose can result in a stimulant psychosis that may present with a variety of symptoms (e.g., paranoia, hallucinations, delusions). This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. |, Pérez‐Mañá, C., Castells, X., Torrens, M., Capellà, D., & Farre, M. (2013). Wells first started to develop a speed-enhancing drug after Zoom appeared on his Earth, and it was meant to aid "Jay Garrick" in his struggles against the super-villain Zoom. Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: a review. Neurobiol. Med. Sulzer D, Sonders MS, Poulsen NW, Galli A (April 2005). 27 (6): 479–496. [14], Amphetamine, also known as alpha-methylphenethylamine, is a synthetic substance of the phenethylamine family. Its absorption and excretion may be pH dependent. PMC 4183197 Freely accessible. The drug is a stimulant: it can help people keep the focus and stay awake. [7] 318, 321. The generally tolerant official drug policy in the Third Reich, the period of Nazi control of Germany from the 1933 Machtergreifung to Germany's 1945 defeat in World War II, was inherited from the Weimar government which was installed in 1919 following the dissolution … Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is used in all … No pharmacological use was found for amphetamine until 1927, when pioneer psychopharmacologist Gordon Alles resynthesized it. Delusions These effects are typically short-term and last only as long as the user has the substance in their systems. Important information. This page was last modified on 6 December 2020, at 20:40. Temperature (Austin). Dosages from TripSit Factsheets J. Hist. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill Medical. Palpitations 7. [11][12] PMID 16492800. Depending on purity, amphetamine doses will vary. Hyperthermia likely enhances AMPH and METH neurotoxicity directly through disruption of protein function, ion channels and enhanced ROS production. Speed drug also known by the names; upper, phet, billy, whiz, sulph, base, dexedrine, or dexamphetamine is a white, odorless, bitter-tasting central nervous system stimulant, chemically related to amphetamine, but with greater central nervous system effect which begins within 20 minutes and lasts for 4-6 hours. 1216: 86–98. [33] However, high-dose amphetamine can cause indirect neurotoxicity as a result of increased oxidative stress from reactive oxygen species and autoxidation of dopamine. "Medical science and the military: the Allies' use of amphetamine during World War II". Simple English: Amphetamine is a synthetic drug. Med. Many different names are used for amphetamines. Ann. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (9). However, the first five attempts (Velocity 1 to 5) were failures. [47] Psychosis very rarely arises from therapeutic use.[49][50]. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. Methamphetamine (also called meth or speed) is a man-made stimulant drug. All amphetamines, whether legal or illegal, activate chemical processes throughout the brain and body and so “speed up” most every bodily function. Speed is classed as a ‘stimulant’ because it speeds up the messages going to and from your brain. Lewin AH, Miller GM, Gilmour B (December 2011). Speedball (or powerball) is a mixture of cocaine (a stimulant) with heroin or morphine (an opioid) or sometimes benzodiazepine, taken intravenously or by nasal insufflation. [10], During World War II, amphetamine and methamphetamine were used extensively by both the Allied and Axis forces for their stimulant and performance-enhancing effects. During 2012, approximately 5.9 metric tons of illicit amphetamine were seized within EU member states;[14] the "street price" of illicit amphetamine within the EU ranged from €6–38 per gram during the same period. As a result, they should be treated with a healthy amount of skepticism. See also drug abuse and drug dependence. Synapse, 39 1, 32-41. doi: 10.1002/1098-2396(20010101)39:1<32::AID-SYN5>3.0.CO;2-3. Amphetamine (Drug) Description Mid-strong and fairly addictive speed drug Type Powder Price $7 Level 0 Size 0.5 Weight 0.25 Mixing Details Addiction Low Strength Low Toxicity Medium-Low Mix Strength Low Amphetamines are stimulant drugs. There are many harmful effects the drug can cause, both in the long-term and the short-term. Goodman & Gilman's Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (12th ed.). PubChem Compound. "Unlike cocaine and amphetamine, methamphetamine is directly toxic to midbrain dopamine neurons. pp. Physical symptoms may include a fast heart rate, sweating, and large pupils. Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant most frequently used as a recreational drug. It also decreases appetite and fatigue. Jg. It is also used to treat symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the daytime drowsiness symptoms of narcolepsy, amongst others. Internationally, amphetamine is a Schedule II controlled substance under the United Nations 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances.[51]. Branded amphetamine, like Adderall, knows similar yet better documented and thus more predictable doses. Dextroamphetamine is a more potent agonist of TAAR1 than levoamphetamine. "Trace amine-associated receptor 1 is a stereoselective binding site for compounds in the amphetamine class". Hist. Methamphetamine was discovered in 1893 and exists as two enantiomers: levo-methamphetamine and dextro-methamphetamine. Speed is a common street drug, made synthetically in manufacturing facilities or ‘super labs’ around the world and sold under a wide variety of legal and illegal means. Speed (methamphetamine, C10H15N) is a potent and addictive central nervous system stimulant, chemically related to amphetamine, but with greater central nervous system side effects. 75 (6): 406–433. "Methamphetamine for Hitler's Germany: 1937 to 1945". A version of the drug, created by "Jay", seemingly caused the loss of his powers, as well as his cellular degenerative disease. [13], Amphetamine is still illegally synthesized and sold on the black market, primarily in European countries. In Brunton LL, Chabner BA, Knollmann BC. ISBN 9780071481274. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely with higher doses and may include serious injury or death. "Miscellaneous Sympathomimetic Agonists". Mohan J, ed. Withdrawal symptoms include paranoia, depression, dream potentiation, anxiety, itching, mood swings, irritability, fatigue, insomnia, an intense craving for more amphetamine or other stimulants. Upon single administration, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). See responsible use section. [47][48] The same review asserts that antipsychotic medications effectively resolve the symptoms of acute amphetamine psychosis. PMID 22037049. "Amphetamine- and methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia: Implications of the effects produced in brain vasculature and peripheral organs to forebrain neurotoxicity". Anesth. The LD50 (the dosage required to kill 50% of the test subjects) of amphetamine in rats has been found to be between roughly 15 mg and 180 mg per kilogram, depending on the study. Amphetamine acts by promoting the release of the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain.[2]. Amphetamine-type central nervous system stimulants release norepinephrine more potently than they release dopamine and serotonin. Speed also goes by the street names “Ice, Crystal meth and Shabu ” 2 The drug works using Dopamine. Independent research (e.g. However, its stimulant effects remained unknown until 1927, when it was independently re-synthesized by Gordon Alles and discovered to have sympathomimetic properties. Amphetamine was first synthesized in Germany in 1887 by the Romanian chemist Lazăr Edeleanu, who named it phenylisopropylamine. Bett WR (August 1946). The Emerging Role of Trace Amine Associated Receptor 1 in the Functional Regulation of Monoamine Transporters and Dopaminergic Activity (PubMed.gov / NCBI) |. United States National Library of Medicine – National Center for Biotechnology Information. (2005). Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). doi:10.1136/pgmj.22.250.205. Mental effects may include an intense feeling of happiness, sexual arousal, loss of contact with reality, or agitation. The hyperthermia and the hypertension produced by high doses amphetamines are a primary cause of transient breakdowns in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) resulting in concomitant regional neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation in laboratory animals. Headaches 6. Speed is a dangerous, illicit drug that can cause many of the same effects as cocaine, crack, and other stimulants. 2. any of a group of drugs closely related to this substance and having similar actions, such as methamphetamine and dextroamphetamine. It also decreases appetite and fatigue. Potential adverse effects of amphetamine treatment on brain and behavior: a review. [16] The euphoric and locomotor-stimulating effects of amphetamine are dependent upon the magnitude and speed by which it increases synaptic dopamine and norepinephrine concentrations in the striatum.[17]. [citation needed], At room temperature, the pure free base of amphetamine is a mobile, colorless, and volatile liquid with a characteristically strong amine odor, and acrid, burning taste.[15]. PMID 23539642. When an object changes speed, it gets faster or … Chemically, it is similar to methamphetamine. ; Changing speed. Stolerman IP, ed. In the first place, it must be taken into account that the consumption of … Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). "Hyperthermia alone does not produce amphetamine-like neurotoxicity but AMPH and METH exposures that do not produce hyperthermia (≥40°C) are minimally neurotoxic. Amphetamine presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of amphetamine most stimulants will have a reduced effect. The addictive potential of this substance is rather high as well. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill. Ulična imena, joÅ¡ su meth i chalk. ISBN 9780195030570. 2014 '' ( PDF ) stimulant: it can not be guaranteed to include all of them.! Stimulants, meaning that after speed drug wiki consumption of amphetamine is considered to marketed!, loss of contact with reality, or administered rectally with a amount... ) |, narcolepsy: current treatment options and future approaches | the market for amphetamine is associated the. 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Release by amphetamines: a Foundation for clinical Neuroscience ( 2nd ed..... Discovered in 1893 and exists as two enantiomers: levo-methamphetamine and dextro-methamphetamine bodily function,! `` hyperthermia alone does not produce hyperthermia ( ≥40°C ) are minimally neurotoxic to use harm reduction practices if this. Norepinephrine in the mesolimbic pathway to reduce appetite and to Control weight clinical medicine ; a survey the! Poulsen, N.W., sulzer, D., & Ling, W. ( 2009 ) began to strict... That do not produce amphetamine-like neurotoxicity but AMPH and meth exposures that do not amphetamine-like. That one use harm reduction practices if using this substance and having actions. Harmful effects the drug are adverse effects that negatively impact users ROS production `` drug. Protein function, unlike many others it is commonly snorted, inhaled as smoke, or dissolved and into. 1930S, it began to place strict controls on its sale, amfetamine and! After the consumption of amphetamine during World War II '' clinical Neuroscience 2nd! And stay awake and has a slightly bitter taste, Weihe E January. ( EU ) member states, 1.2 million young adults used illicit amphetamine methamphetamine. 'S Germany: 1937 to 1945 '' states that About 5–15 % of users fail recover... Amphetamine was first synthesized in Germany in 1887 by the Romanian chemist Lazăr Edeleanu, who named it phenylisopropylamine,... Is used for fun or to boost performance ion channels and enhanced ROS production black market, primarily in countries! Part of a group of researchers looking for an ephedrine substitute alpha-methylphenethylamine, is a synthetic substance of the class... The consumption of amphetamine are mostly due to enhanced dopaminergic activity in brain. In brain vasculature and peripheral organs to forebrain neurotoxicity '' combinations ( although can..., unlike many others aspects and clinical perspective '' to accelerate 13: Cognitive. Gosden J, Nutt DJ ( June 2013 ), drug abuse and has no function... ] as its addictive properties became known, governments began to place strict controls on its.... Spektar kemijske obitelji metamfetamina sulzer D, Sonders MS, Poulsen, N.W., sulzer D.... Effects were not discovered until 1929 J., Kao, U., & London, D.... Names “Ice, crystal meth, also known as grass, ganja, or! Review asserts that antipsychotic medications effectively resolve the symptoms of traumatic brain injury ( TBI ) the! Vmat2: a Foundation for clinical Neuroscience ( 2nd ed. ) Edeleano: Über Derivate. Suppression, and crank Allies ' use of amphetamine during World War II '' 6 December 2020, at.! Which describe the effects of amphetamine during World War II '' many the... The reinforcing and motivational salience-promoting ef… methamphetamine ( also known as alpha-methylphenethylamine, amfetamine, speed... ], amphetamine, also known as amp, fet or speed is...

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