Submarine cables connect the various islands and provide connectivity with England and France. As the Channel Islands are not a part of the EU and do not benefit from the UK's membership (except for the provisions of Protocol 3 concerning trade in goods), Brexit will have no direct impact on the Channel Islands' financial services industries and a limited impact on trade in goods. They include two Crown dependencies: the Bailiwick of Jersey, which is the largest of the islands; and the Bailiwick of Guernsey, consisting of Guernsey, Alderney, Sark, Herm and some smaller islands. scope. Many Spaniards, initially refugees from the Spanish Civil War, were brought to the islands to build fortifications. The Channel Islands and the European Union. In the early 21st century, the existence of governmental offices such as the bailiffs' with multiple roles straddling the different branches of government came under increased scrutiny for their apparent contravention of the doctrine of separation of powers—most notably in the Guernsey case of McGonnell -v- United Kingdom (2000) 30 EHRR 289. The Royal Navy blockaded the islands from time to time, particularly following the Invasion of Normandy in June 1944. , The main islanders have traditional animal nicknames:. The Channel Islands (Norman: Îles d'la Manche; French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy. Islanders became involved with the Newfoundland fisheries in the seventeenth century. UK stamps are no longer valid, but mail to the islands, and to the Isle of Man, is charged at UK inland rates. Many of the town domiciles existing today were built in that time. Switzerland, previously participating, was neither an EU nor EEA member but was part of the single market so Swiss nationals had the same rights to live and work in EEA countries as other EEA nationals. Rental income comes second at 15.1% with other business activities at 11.2%. These services are provided by BBC Radio Jersey, BBC Radio Guernsey, BBC Channel Islands, ITV Channel Television, Island FM, and Channel 103.  A "Guernsey-man" also makes an appearance in chapter 91 of Herman Melville's Moby-Dick. Under the provisions of Protocol Three, Channel Islanders who do not have a close connection with the UK (no parent or grandparent from the UK, and have never been resident in the UK for a five-year period) did not automatically benefit from the EU provisions on free movement within the EU, and their passports received an endorsement to that effect. The end of the occupation came after VE-Day on 8 May 1945, Jersey and Guernsey being liberated on 9 May. , Cricket is popular in the Channel Islands. The two Bailiwicks each have their own internet domain, .GG (Guernsey, Alderney, Sark) and .JE (Jersey), which are managed by channelisles.net. Before German troops landed, between 30 June and 4 July 1940, evacuation took place. The British Government demilitarised the islands in June 1940, and the lieutenant-governors were withdrawn on 21 June, leaving the insular administrations to continue government as best they could under impending military occupation.. They are considered the remnants of the Duchy of Normandy and, although they are not part of the United Kingdom, the UK is responsible f…  Since the 1990s, declining profitability of agriculture and tourism has challenged the governments of the islands. 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