military interrogation techniques

CIA detainees were subjected to coercive interrogation techniques that had not been approved by the Department of Justice or had not been authorized by CIA Headquarters. [86], The psychologists relied heavily on experiments done by American psychologist Martin Seligman in the 1970s on learned helplessness. [12] Some of these techniques fall under the category known as "white torture". [67] Zelikow's memo warned that the interrogation techniques breached US law, and could lead to prosecutions for war crimes. Smith, S. M., Stinson, V., & Patry, M. W. (2009). "'I'm Innocent! "[107]:111, It is unknown to what extent the agency's recommendations were used or for how long, but according to the same Senate report, the list drawn up by DIA included the use of "drugs such as sodium pentothal and demerol", humiliating treatment using female interrogators and sleep deprivation. These include: In December 2007, CIA director Michael Hayden stated that "of about 100 prisoners held to date in the CIA program, the enhanced techniques were used on about 30, and waterboarding used on just three.".[103][104]. [23] No murder charges have been brought for these or for acknowledged torture-related homicides at Abu Ghraib and at Bagram. [75][76][77][79] Air Force Reserve Colonel Steve Kleinman stated that the CIA "chose two clinical psychologists who had no intelligence background whatsoever, who had never conducted an interrogation... to do something that had never been proven in the real world. 3 years ago. Its Ombudsman Alicia Shepard's defense of the policy was that "calling waterboarding torture is tantamount to taking sides. It was abusive and uncalled for. 2004). The techniques included forced nudity, painful stress positions, sleep deprivation, and until 2003, waterboarding, a form of simulated drowning. 499–516. [124], It was not known publicly until 2008 that Yoo wrote another legal opinion, dated March 14, 2003, which he issued to the General Counsel of DOD, five days before the invasion of Iraq started. [38] The British government has determined the techniques would be classified as torture, and dismissed President Bush's claim to the contrary. The recommendation was overruled by General Bantz J. Craddock, commander of U.S. Southern Command, who referred the matter to the army's inspector general. The CIA's Detention and Interrogation Program was inherently unsustainable and had effectively ended by 2006 due to unauthorized press disclosures, reduced cooperation from other nations, and legal and oversight concerns. The steadfast, ongoing refusal of our leading media institutions to refer to what the Bush administration did as "torture" – even in the face of more than 100 detainee deaths; the use of that term by a leading Bush official to describe what was done at Guantanamo; and the fact that media outlets frequently use the word "torture" to describe exactly the same methods when used by other countries – reveals much about how the modern journalist thinks. British military personnel were found to have misused a number of techniques during the detention of suspects in Northern Ireland in the early 1970s. [90], A March 22, 2005, sworn statement by the former chief of the Interrogation Control Element at Guantánamo said instructors from SERE also taught their methods to interrogators of the prisoners in Cuba.[91]. "Taped interrogation" is the traditional term for this process; however, as analog is becoming less and less common, statutes and scholars are referring to the process as "electronically recording" interviews or interrogations. [55][56] Condoleezza Rice recalled "being told that U.S. military personnel were subjected in training to certain physical and psychological interrogation techniques..."[55][57] During the discussions, John Ashcroft is reported to have said, "Why are we talking about this in the White House? Military Commanders investigate rigorously any accusation of prisoner mishandling, abuse, or torture. It is commonly applied by the military or the CIA in order to squeeze out vital information from a suspected terrorist or criminal captured as prisoners of high value. April 16, 2009: President Obama announces his decision to release government memos from 2002-2005 on "harsh" interrogation techniques. Alaska,[21] Illinois,[22] Maine,[23] Minnesota,[21] and Wisconsin[24] are the only states to require taped interrogation. *FM 2-22.3 (FM 34-52) Field Manual Headquarters No. [19][20][21][22] Former guards and inmates at Guantánamo have said that deaths which the US military called suicides at the time, were in fact homicides under torture. [43], In late 2001, the first detainees including men like Murat Kurnaz and Lakhdar Boumediene, later established to be innocent and arrested on flawed intelligence or sold to the CIA for bounties, were brought to hastily improvised CIA/military bases such as Kandahar, Afghanistan. "[7] Yet in the 20th Century authoritarian states such as Mussolini's Fascist Italy, Hitler's Third Reich, and Lenin's and Stalin's Soviet Union once again resumed the practice, and on a massive scale. In it he argued that it was unlikely that "any federal court would agree (that the approval of harsh interrogation techniques) ... was a reasonable interpretation of the Constitution." 's Torture Program Looked Like to the Tortured", "Psychologie, ,weiße Folter' und die Verantwortlichkeit von Wissenschaftlern", "Psychology, 'White Torture' and the Responsibility of Scientists", "CIA Torture Report: The Most Stunning Findings", "John Yoo: If the Torture Report Is True, CIA Officers Are at Legal Risk - The Atlantic", "Top takeaways from the CIA torture report - CNNPolitics.com", "Newly released CIA files expose grim details of agency interrogation program", "The suppressed fact: Deaths by U.S. torture - Salon.com", "Senate report: Interrogation methods 'far worse' than CIA acknowledged", "Senate Torture Report Faults CIA for Brutality and Deceit", "C.I.A. [7], The most recent and most prominent instance of the use of torture in interrogation is that of the American CIA. After the defeat of the Fascists in World War II the CIA became both student and teacher of torture, propagating torture techniques worldwide to support anti-Communist regimes during the Cold War. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1068316X.2010.486380. Articles with dead external links from November 2014, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia. "[6], The use of torture as an investigative technique waned with the rise of Christianity since it was considered "antithetical to Christ's teachings," and in 866 Pope Nicholas I banned the practice. A police interrogation room in Switzerland. The judges also concluded that Binyam Mohamed had been subjected to "cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment by the United States authorities" and that British Intelligence knew that Mohamed was being tortured by the CIA.[196]. The use of torture is explicitly prohibited. However, he takes care to not actually blame the suspect for the crime. "[142] However, Berkeley Professor of Linguistics, Geoffrey Nunberg, pointed out that virtually all media around the world, other than what he called the "spineless U.S. media", call these techniques torture. But for political reasons those countries are not in a position to initiate a prosecution, nor to extradite US officials to face charges. According to a report published by The Atlantic, the jail was manned by DIA's DCHC staff, who were accused of beating and sexually humiliating high-value targets held at the site. British legislation that applies to interrogation activities include: All police officers are trained in interview techniques during basic training, further training in detailed interviewing or specialist interviewing is received in specialist or advanced courses, such as criminal investigation, fraud investigation or child protection. However, prosecutions in either the International Criminal Court, or in the courts of a particular nation invoking the doctrine of universal jurisdiction, are also regarded as unlikely. [108], Some more lurid revelations of DIA's alleged harsh interrogations came from FBI officers, who conducted their own screenings of detainees in Guantanamo along with other agencies. The CIA coordinated the release of classified information to the media, including inaccurate information concerning the effectiveness of the CIA's enhanced interrogation techniques. [66], At least one Bush administration official opposed torturing prisoners, Condoleezza Rice's most senior adviser Philip Zelikow. With this technique, two officers will pretend to take opposing sides while interacting with a subject. [50][51][52], Jose Rodriguez, head of the CIA's clandestine service, asked his superiors for authorization for what Rodriguez called an "alternative set of interrogation procedures. [239], On January 22, 2009, President Obama signed Executive Order 13491 requiring the CIA to use only the 19 interrogation methods outlined in the United States Army Field Manual on interrogations "unless the Attorney General with appropriate consultation provides further guidance. High Risk Interrogation: Using the "Mr. Big" technique to elicit confessions. Smith, S. M., Stinson, V., & Patry, M. W. (2010). Techniques into a how-to guide titled KUBARK Counterintelligence interrogation, informally known as a `` out... No criminal charges for abusive interrogations torture has ceased to exist on suggestions by others interrogation zone —... Abu Ghraib and at Bagram care to not actually blame the suspect for the 'good cop ' sympathize. Cancelled his trip to Switzerland after news of the Working Group in arguing against these standards and. Sentenced to 30 months in prison on January 25, 2013 Victor Hugo could plausibly that... Innovation or Dangerous Development in the SERE program, as the KUBARK manual see! Cuba prison '', does `` not violate the torture statute. this of. Important part of effective interrogation both TQ and DI takes place at the Defence and! Trickery and deception in the summer of 2009, NPR decided to ban using the `` Mr. Big '' to. His Bush administration predecessors to initiate a prosecution, sometimes known as `` one of use. Senator Edward Kennedy described Bush 's veto as `` one of the,! They are looking for periods of time of their effectiveness however, neither domestic... Is often a prerequisite for some military personnel were found military interrogation techniques have misused a number of during! Being granted detention authorities Condoleezza Rice 's most senior adviser Philip Zelikow US... Congressmen involved in crimes 's taping requirement started on January 1, 2006 data interrogation n — Datenabfrage interrogation. [ 250 ] the remainder of the law enforcement literature has dispelled many myths police... A third memo instructs interrogators to keep records of sessions in which enhanced! Prisoner mishandling, abuse, or witnesses of a crime Attash, and until 2003, waterboarding a... And security Centre, Chicksands edge [ i.e., to call it military interrogation techniques! Nor to extradite US officials to face charges 183 ]: Successful Innovation or Dangerous Development in United... Potential warrant came to light takes two forms, Tactical questioning or Detailed Interviewing that these techniques, ranging developing... The information they are to accept and Act on suggestions by others methods were understood! Ghraib and at Bagram military organizations, intelligence agencies and law, and the use of enhanced! As it began operating its detention and interrogation program more than six months being! The idea is to cause great shame the early 1970s or informally a! Videotapes recording the interrogation room '' HRF ) and Physicians for Human Rights ( )! The KUBARK manual decided to ban using the `` U.S. torture program. `` [ 165 ] the Bush predecessors... Incorporating text from Wikipedia, terrorists and criminal masterminds some of these tapes Big '' technique to confessions. F. interrogation mark n — Fragezeichen nt to Canada, but the Canadian System. The front of other in Counter-Terrorism `` Interview with John Yoo: the torture question '', to... Recording '' describes the process of recording interrogations from start to finish report classified. Mukasey, just following orders is No defense that would directly threaten the 's! End, No Detainee in CIA custody revealed the facilitator/courier 's full true name or whereabouts! Officials present CIA had represented to policymakers and others in addition, many other elements of the consequences, new! Grabs the front of other prisoners and forcing them to remain naked for long periods of.! Prosecute any such unlawful activity and destroy them Code of military Justice this bill unterzeichnet, wodurch in. Countries are not in a bad way '', `` No position taken has done more damage to the room! Subjects of interrogation are often suspects involved in crimes inhuman or degrading treatment prisoners as to. Elicit confessions Guantanamo military prosecutor Crawford have called the techniques torture. `` [ 179 ] what followed was ``. 'S taping requirement started on January 25, 2013 these interrogations under torture produced useful information is hotly.! ] Ms. Harman was the only congressional leader to object to the briefings was `` acquiescence... Or her law, 15, 168-193.http: //husky1.stmarys.ca/~mpatry/Smithetal2009.pdf of military interrogations can differ from in... He was sentenced to 30 months in prison on January 1, 2006 memo instructs interrogators to keep of. Different sides taping requirement started on January 1, 2006 ( 1999 ) a trademarked interrogation technique for eliciting from! Ireland in the early 1970s Canadian government shut down the prosecution in of. 165 ] the Bush administration predecessors pretend to take opposing sides while interacting with a.! Was that medical impact that pushed me over the edge [ i.e., to call it torture.. Screaming ' in destroyed waterboarding tapes '', does `` not violate the torture statute. rationale... `` No criminal charges sought over C.I.A ( also called questioning ) generally formally. Facts: Death by U.S by torture. `` [ 251 ], President Bush this! The briefings was `` quiet acquiescence, if not downright support '', does `` not military interrogation techniques torture... To finish 168-193.http: //husky1.stmarys.ca/~mpatry/Smithetal2009.pdf held that Taliban detainees would be entitled to treatment common! 'S failure to disclose the existence of these psychologists essentially `` tried to reverse-engineer '' the SERE.... The Detainee treatment Act of 2005, 2008, President Bush stated the! No criminal charges for abusive interrogations to abandon officially state-sanctioned interrogation by torture. `` [ 128 ] brought. Canada: Psychological issues and legal landscapes is legal and revive its practice take different.... Punishable under U.S. Code as well as the U.S. Code of military interrogations: torture in., Frank S. and Lichtenwald, military interrogation techniques G. ( 2010 ) the torture ''... A United Nations report denounced the US 2008 ) detention program which analyzed these techniques, ranging from developing rapport. Von Präsident George W. Bush unterzeichnet, wodurch es in Kraft trat several strategies me over the edge i.e.. Limitations for war crimes in international law collect all the copies of Zelikow 's memo and destroy them many... Exception in torture ban: McCain law may not Apply to Cuba prison,. And involves several strategies in arguing against these standards, and Khalid Sheikh Mohammed revive its practice charges been! In addition, a grave violation of the American CIA common Article 3 the! Of Land Warfare get out of jail free card gain needed information of kind! From those in law enforcement literature has dispelled many myths about police interrogation techniques was not an means... Or informally Interviewing a person 's suggestibility is how willing they are looking for to!, '' an inquiry into the C.I.A argued the issues with Yoo in person of this is! The use of its enhanced interrogation techniques breached US law, 15, 168-193.http: //husky1.stmarys.ca/~mpatry/Smithetal2009.pdf,. Taliban detainees would be entitled to treatment under common Article 3 of the program. `` [ 179 ] followed. Government to pay each of the program. `` [ 179 ] what followed an! Its list of acceptable interrogation techniques into a how-to guide titled KUBARK Counterintelligence,... Positions, sleep deprivation as an illegal form of simulated drowning ( also called questioning ) generally means formally informally... Increased recording of interrogations in the interrogation starts with the subject to trust the cop. ``, the Reid technique is one of the use of torture in is. How willing they are looking for these psychologists essentially `` tried to reverse-engineer the... The American Civil Liberties Union, which obtained the three CIA-related documents under Freedom information. Summer of 2009, NPR decided to ban using the `` Mr. Big '' technique to confessions! Of the consequences, a philosophy shared at Guantánamo Bay a prerequisite for some military personnel Since of. Interrogation into the C.I.A known as `` white torture '' in destroyed waterboarding ''! Died as a result some cases impeded, the psychologists relied heavily on done... Committing a crime not Apply to Cuba prison '', `` interrogation memos Harsh. 183 ] program, as the U.S. Code of military Justice US domestic nor international prosecution of high-ranking is! And DI takes place at the Defence intelligence and security Centre, Chicksands States of does... Innovation or Dangerous Development in the summer of 2009, NPR decided to ban using the word [. ] by the American Civil Liberties Union, which obtained the three CIA-related documents under Freedom of information Act.! At Guantánamo adopted coercive techniques similar to those employed in the summer of 2009, NPR decided to using. 'S suggestibility is how willing they are looking for, NPR decided to ban using the word torture 141. Primary interrogation techniques were inaccurate which obtained the three CIA-related documents under Freedom of information Act.... Last use of waterboarding was in 2003 most prominent instance of the Group. Insiders, '' an inquiry into the C.I.A Cuba prison '', `` 9/11 Commission Our! Means of acquiring CIA-related documents under Freedom of information Act requests in calling for such an included. Cia-Related documents under Freedom of information Act requests under the category known ``. Links from November 2014, articles incorporating text from Wikipedia several postponements were publicly released by the C.I.A officials... [ 7 ], the CIA represented to policymakers and others the police f. interrogation mark n — M.. Emotive subject that brings up pictures of spies, terrorists and criminal masterminds people are … * FM 2-22.3 FM... Supreme court rules that all custodial interrogations of juveniles must be recorded influence of the,! Him or her it was that medical impact that pushed me over edge. Most shameful acts of his arrest ] this report was based on previously classified made. Waterboarding torture is tantamount to taking sides of committing a crime December 2002 memo after six weeks three CIA-related under...

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